Social development is the promotion of sustainable society that is worthy of human dignity by empowering marginalized groups ,women and men ,to undertake their own development ,to improve their social and economic position and acquire their rightful place in the society .
According to Amartya Sen. (1995)
“Social development is equality of social opportunities.”
Social indicator is defined as statistical measures that describe social trends and conditions impacting on human well being. Generally, social indicators perform one or more of three functions:
- Providing information for decision making
- Monitoring and evaluating policies
- And /or for a common good and deciding how to reach it.
Example of social indicators:
Examples of social indicators cover the full range of issues that matter for individual, community, and societal well being.
- Poverty Rate
- Inequality rate
- Life expectancy
- Suicide rates
Types of Development Indicators:
Development indicators can be divided in to two types:
- Social Indicators:
Those to do with equality of life of individual within a country.
- Economic Indicators:
Those to do with the wealth of individual within the country. Beggary
Beggary is the great socio economic problem found in many of the underdeveloped countries of the world. It is the symptom of personal as well as social disorganization .A Beggar in a street at once reminds us of an ill organized society. In Pakistan although begging is an old profession it has changed it’s from in the modern period and problem has become a classical one.
Definition of Beggar and Beggary:
A Beggar is one who asks for alms or charity or performs such actions which derive sympathy from others and who give something in return.
Beggary means begging on roads on door to door standing or entering a dwelling house or a place of business or otherwise for the maintence of himself and his dependants.
Types of Beggars:
The types of beggars are given below:
- Able –bodied Adult Beggars:
Some adult men and women resort to begging either because they are unemployed or underemployed or have no other sources of money to support them. Some lazy people who are not prepared to work hard are also tempted to become Beggars.
- Able –bodied child Beggars:
The child Beggars whose parents are incapable of earning by any means ,those who are forced due to family disorganization ,those who are kidnapped by some people or organization and made to earn a living out of begging .
- Hereditary Beggars:
Due to the obligation of customs some people beg. They consider begging as their hereditary profession.
- Sick and diseased Beggars:
These people are suffering from chronic and incurable diseases such as leprosy venereal diseases, T.B, skin diseases, etc. They very often spread diseases to others.
- Physically Disable:
These include the blind, deaf, dumb, and crippled.
- Mentally Retarded:
Some beggars are found to be mentally deranged. The rats of Duala Shah fall in this category.
- Old and Incapable people:
Also often beg due to incapacity to work and earn a leaving.
- Religious Mendicancy:
Some people beg with religions fervour because they believe that beggary has the sanction of religion.
Causes of beggary:
The problem of beggary is not due the problem of a single cause. It is the outcome of a number of factors.These causes may be analysed under four heads eoconomic, social, biological, and religious.
- Economic Causes:
Economic causes may be analyzed under three subs – divisions. Poverty, lack of employment and / or underemployed, beggary, a profitable business.
Poverty is the main cause of beggary .It is estimated that even after 60 years of independence about 40 of the people are living below the line of poverty in Pakistan. A Large number of people are poor, their per capita income is very less and many of them do not have any access to make money or at least earn their livelihood.
- Lack of employment and /or underemployment:
Unemployment is an other cause of beggary .In Pakistan Lakhs of unemployed people are there. The present system of economy has not been able to provide them adequate employment opportunities .The non agriculture sector also has not been able to absorb all these people.
- Beggary as a profitable business:
In Pakistan many have made beggary their profession for the easy gains and sufficient income that they get out it. It has been estimated that on an average the Pakistani beggar earns more than four hundred rupees a day. Thus, some have found begging as an easy and a profitable means of getting their daily bread.
2. Social Causes:
Among the social causes could mentioned factors such as family, disorganization, lack of parental control, community disorganization, breakdown of joint family system and social customs.
- Family disorganization:
Family is a nucleus of social structure .It Influences most of activities and behavior patterns of the members. Family disturbance are found to affect the other activities.
- Lack of parental control:
Due to very hard living conditions in cities and industrial centre, the poor parents neither show their interest nor find time to pay attention to socialize their children.
- Community disorganization and break-up of joint family system:
Previously, the result is helpless people are driven to the profession of begging.
- Favorable ,Social Customs:
It has been noted already that tribal beg as a customary obligation. Traditional Pakistanis gives alms to the beggars as a matter of their commitment to custom.
3. Biological causes:
- Sickness or diseases:
There are some beggars suffering from incurable diseases like leprosy, syphilis, Tb, skin Diseases etc. They lead a life of agony and extreme suffering.
- Physical and mental deficiency:
The physical defects such as blindness, deafness, dumbness, acquired or inherited make person disable and helpless. For such people begging remains the only resort if they have no individual to support them.
- Old Age:
The number of old aged beggars is also quite large in Pakistan. Person who become physically weak in old age and at same time have nobody to support become beggars to sustain themselves.
4. Religious causes:
Religious causes include two points religious mendicancy and indiscriminate alms giving.
- Religious mendicancy:
It is not uncommon to find in Pakistan a large numbers of beggars begging under the garb of ‘”fakirs” or a “pir” or any such name. For the, religious mendicants is also a mean to an end.
- Indiscriminate Alms- giving:
In Pakistan people give alms to the beggars indiscriminately. They give charity sometimes because of their commitment to customs. It is observed that most of beggars remain in this profession because of good prospects of income.
The complex problem of beggary has become a pervasive in Pakistan .Beggars is found in almost all corners of Pakistan. The number of people taken to begging has also increased in spite of various developmental and welfare programmers and schemes undertaken by Government.pakistan which is speedily going ahead in the field of space research cannot remain silent or show its negligence with respect to the problem of beggars. The Pakistan public is also slowly showing its concern towards problems.
- Establishment of protective homes or rehabilitation centers:
Mere legislation will not help much in this regard. The problem must be tracked rationally as well as humanistic ally. It is necessary to set up protective homes for the beggars. In fact almost all the stats have such protective homes for beggars; but their numbers and capacity is far less to meet the actual need.
- Provision of workhouses:
Special attention must be paid to able bodied adult beggar who could given some training in different types of industries .Steps should be taken to secure jobs for them to rehabilitate them permanently.
- Separate houses:
There should be separate houses for men and women and for children .There should also be separate home for disabled and infirm persons. They must be provided with work according to their capacities.
- Comprehensive social security measures:
It is also necessary to prevent the unemployed youths, the aged and infirm people, windows deserted wives, disowned children, UN – married mothers and such other persons from taking to begging.
- Reception centers:
It should be set up in each state at certain important centers where the beggars should be kept at first instance. These centers should make necessary arrangements to give appropriate treatment to the beggars depending upon their nature.
- Counteracting the influence of poverty:
At the root of beggary is the problem of poverty .Hence proper steps must be taken to remove poverty. This requires the development of country resources. It also demands proper economic planning and its effective implementation, healthy conditions are to be created in society through various types of developmental schemes so that poor people are not compelled or tempted to take or begging.
- Mobilizing public opinion:
It is equally necessary to mobilize public opinion against indiscriminate alms giving through governmental and private efforts. The traditional attitude and outlook of people towards beggars and charity must be changed. They must be made to develop a rationalistic outlook towards the problem.
It is estimated a few years ago that on an average a beggar in Pakistan gets about Rs .500 day alms from the public. It means 2 lack beggars get a total amount of one core rupees a day. If such a vast amount of money is collected and utilized for the rehabilitating of beggars through some centralized all Pakistan level schemes with governmental sanction the problem could be reduced a great deal within a short time.
It is hard to say whether the beggars are good or not. Mostly they are homeless they need help from others. Now a days it is hard to find a real beggar. On the other hand, real beggar does not believe on begging because he believes on Allah. Beggars are even richer than a white collar, which is very frightening. Mafia also exists behind all this, and the police is also providing protection to beggars. Government should check those police servants and strictly give orders to them to not to provide protection to beggars, and the police should take strict actions against those mafia which disables them and force them to beg.