langauage is form of communication either written or spoken according to need of living beings. It is basic need of human being. Man is a social animal, he can not live alone. He lives in society and share his ideas with others.
language can be defined as; “Language consists of words and methods of combining them for the expression of thoughts.”
Language is based on a system of symbols or words used by a community and the rules for varying and combining them. All human languages have some common characteristics. These include infinite generativity and organizational rules.
it is the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules. These rules describe how language works.
Language’s Rule Systems
American writer Ralph Waldo Emerson said,”The world was built in order, and the atoms march in tune, he must have had language in mind. Language is highly ordered and organized.”
There are five systems of rules in this organization:
i. Phonology ii. Morphology iii. Syntax iv. Semantics v. Pragmatics
Every language is made up of basic sounds. phonology is the sound system of the language, including the sounds that are used and how they may be comined. For Example, English has the initial consonant cluster spr as in spring, but no words begin with the cluster rsp.
A phenome is the basic unit of sound in a language, it is the smallest unit of sound that affects meaning. For Example; /p/ is phenome in pot and spot because the sound of /p/ is slightly different in these words.
Morphology is the units of meaning involved in word formation. The rules of morphology describe the way meaningful units (morphemes) can be combined in words.
A morpheme is a minimal unit of meaning or it is a word or part of word that cannot be broken into smaller meaningful parts. For example; help is a single morpheme while helper has two morphemes.
Tha way of combining words to form meaningful and acceptable pharases and sentences is called syntax. In syntax meaning of sentesnce is clear and also makes clear sense. For Example; “You didn’t stay, did you?” is a grammetical sentence, but “You didn’t stay, didn’t you?” is unacceptable and ambigous.
Semantics refers to the meaning of words and sentences. Every word has a set of semantic features, which are required attributes related to meaning. For Example; Girl and woman share many semantic features, but they differ semantically in regard to age.
The appropriate use of language in different context is called pragmantics. It is final set of language rules. Pragmatics is the use of language according to situation. It is the system of using appropriate conversation and knowledge of how to effecively use langauge in context.