Pollution, Types, Causes and effects

Pollution, Types, Causes and effects

Pollution, Types, Causes and effects.

Pollution


Introduction:


Pollution is the mixing of some harmful or poisonous material into the natural resources available on the earth. It affects the ordinary living of the species on this planet by disturbing the natural life cycle. Sense of contamination of the environment first recorded c. 1860, but not common until c. 1955.
Definition:
“Pollution is something introduced into the environment that is dirty, unclean or has a harmful effect.”
Pollutant:
“A substance that makes land, water, air, or other natural resources dirty and not safe or suitable to use”. Something that causes pollution.
Types of Pollution:
The main types of pollution are following.

  1. Littering
  2. Soil pollution
  3. Radioactive contamination
  4. Water pollution
  5. Visual pollution
  6. Thermal pollution
  7. Plastic pollution
  8. Noise pollution
  9. Light pollution
  10. Air pollution
    Littering:
    “When waste products generated by humans is not disposed of properly, it is called littering.”
    Waste can anything that is discarded by humans after use like bottles, glass, electronic waste, metal waste, batteries, tires, etc. are hazardous to the health of the environment. When chemicals from such wastes leach into the soil or enter the water bodies, they cause soil contamination and water pollution.
    Soil Pollution:
    When the soil of an area is contaminated, it leads to soil pollution. The soil is essential to the growth of all plants including crops. Industrial an agricultural chemicals are the common pollutants contaminating the soil which translates to lower yields and poor health of crops grown on such soils.
    Radioactive Contamination:
    When radioactive substances are present in areas where their presence is undesirable, it results radioactive contamination. Such substances are highly toxic to all life on earth. Radioactive substances trigger mutations in the genetic material of living organisms, leading to different types of cancers.
    Water Pollution:
    “The contamination of water bodies like lakes, rivers, ponds, etc by pollutants is called water pollution.” Water pollution is one of the most harmful types of pollution. A major volume of the all pollutants produced on land end up in water bodies, which is harmful for all types of life.
    Visual Pollution:
    Everyone loves to see clean and green spaces and beautiful vistas. When human activity installs ugly barriers to this vision of open and clutter-free landscapes, it is called visual pollution. The installation of billboards, open storage of trash, networks of electric wires crisscrossing each other above the streets create visual pollution. This type of pollution generates distraction, eye fatigue, diversity in opinions, and other psychological problems.
    Thermal Pollution:
    An induced change in the temperature of large volumes of water causes thermal pollution. This type of pollution leads to destroy the aquatic life. Higher temperature in environment also creates problems. Green house effect is big cause of it.
    Plastic Pollution:
    Plastic pollution is caused by plastic accumulation in the environment. Plastic, a nonbiodegradable substance, is extremely harmful to all life on earth. Most of the plastic waste generated in the world end up in the oceans where they cause great harm to the marinenecosystem.
    Noise Pollution:
    When the environment is filled with unnecessary or unpleasant sounds that are harmful to any kind of life, it is called noise pollution. Transport vehicles, machinery, industries, loud music, etc, are common sources of noise pollution. This type of pollution on the long term can give rise to chronic diseases like cardiovascular and psychological problems.
    Light pollution:
    The pollution of the night environment by anthropogenic light is known as light pollution. This type of pollution is caused by an excessive lighting of the streets, flood lights used in stadium, lights used in industrial area. It includes the spoilage of environment of a place, creating disturbance in the ecosystem and, also harming the health of living creatures.
    Air Pollution:
    Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants like toxic gases, biological molecules and particulate matter into the atmosphere. Pollutants can be derived from several sources including both natural processes and human activity. Volcanic eruptions, automobile, and industrial effluence are some examples of air pollution sources. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,
    chlorofluorocarbons, aerosol sprays are examples of air pollutants.
    Types of air pollutants:
    There are two types of air pollutants:
    ▪ Primary pollutants
    ▪ Secondary pollutants
    Primary pollutants:
    “Primary pollutants are that type of pollutants which injected into the atmosphere directly.”
    Examples:
    • Carbon monoxide
    • Oxides of nitrogen
    • Sulphur oxides etc
    Secondary pollutants:
    “Secondary pollutants form in the atmosphere through chemical and photochemical reactions
    from the primary pollutants.”
    Examples:
    • Sulfuric acid
    • Nitrogen dioxide
    • Ozone
    Causes of Pollution:
    The main causes of pollution are following;
    • Cutting down of the forests
    • High vehicle usage
    • Rapid urbanization
    • Industrialization affected natural environment
    • Harmful and poisonous wastes
    • Fossil fuels
    • Combustion process
    • Use of pesticides
    • Littering of plastic
    • Limited natural restores
    • Greenhouse effect
    • Unnecessary lights
    • Noise
    • Radioactive rays
    • Unorganized materials
    Effects of pollution:
    • Increased risk of heart attack, coughing and breathing problems
    • Irritation of eyes, nose and throat
    • Asthma and lungs complications
    • Deforestation
    • Increasing diseases
    • Disturb water life
    • Mutation in genetic material
    • Different types of Cancer
    • Psychological problems
    • Chronic diseases
    • Disturbing ecosystem
    Remedial measures:
    • Dispose the waste properly
    • Industries should be concentered away from population
    • Avoid disposing the polluted water in rivers, oceans and lakes to protect aquatic life
    • Minimize the use of vehicles
    • Control population
    • Avoid combustion in population
    • Grow trees
    • Conserve natural resources
    • Use environmentally safe paints
    • Reduce the consumption of energy
    • Use of advanced lightening sources
    Conclusion:
    Here, we discussed about pollution, types, causes, effects and remedial measures. Pollution is
    one of the major factors which hinder the development in our society. If we want to make
    progress we have to control these factors.
    “Start from yourself and give practical lesson to others. We all are responsible

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